Information on events on June 2, 1962 in Novocherkassk
Execution of peaceful demonstration in Novocherkassk became the most black page in the history of the sixtieth years of the last century, the tragedy of scale of the whole country.
In the former Cossack capital, in the town in the Rostov region, most of residents of the USSR learned about what actually happened to Dona only in the late eighties.
Now in Novocherkassk annually remember the victims of the tragedy of the 62nd year - when during demonstration dozens of civilians were shot.
On June 2, 1962 employees of the local electric locomotive plant together with families came to a meeting with requirements of salary increase. To constrain many thousands crowd, to the city troops were drawn up. When people tried to break to the building of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies, opened fire at them. Only according to official figures then 26 people died, 87 are wounded. Later the court sentenced seven participants of the action to death, more than hundred were sent in the camp.
In 1989 the Museum of history of the Don Cossacks (Novocherkassk) started collecting materials about events on June 2, 1962. In 1992 in the museum the first exhibition telling about these events was open.
In 2002 the city administration of Novocherkassk opened the municipal museum "Memories of the Novocherkassk Tragedy of 1962". To 2008 funds of the municipal museum were contributed to the Novocherkassk museum of history of the Don Cossacks.
Since 2008 the hall of memory of the Novocherkassk tragedy of 1962 works in the Atamansky palace of the city. The museum of history of the Don Cossacks conducts purposeful collecting the materials, documents and photos connected with these difficult days in city life.
The Museum of history of the Don Cossacks prepares a new exposition of the hall of memory of the Novocherkassk tragedy of 1962 for the 50 anniversary of events. By means of modern museum methods of demonstration this exposition will be able to disclose more fully discrepancy and tragic element of the taking place events. Within preparation of this exposition in the museum the exhibition "the Sixtieth already works: look 50 years later".
The city administration of Novocherkassk developed the plan of measures devoted to this event. The main of them are planned in the second quarter 2012.
The municipal budgetary institution of culture "The Novocherkassk centralized library system" will organize book exhibitions, thematic conversations, round tables, meetings of local history club of Dontsa.
The city administration will hold a remembrance ceremony in which it is planned to involve staff of cultural institutions and art of the city. In amateur combinations of patriotic orientation there will pass memorial evenings of the victims of the tragedy of 1962.
COPIES OF ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS:
From minutes of a meeting of the Novocherkassk city asset of the party on the facts of disorders and violations of normal life of the city and tasks of the city party organization for mobilization of workers of the city on successful implementation of plans of communistic construction
… Comrade. Loginov is the first secretary of the Novocherkassk city town committee of the CPSU.
Companions! All Soviet people well know about that huge work which is carried out by our party on rise in agriculture with what persistence it fights for increase in production of grain, meat, milk, etc. products.
Workers of our country supported the Appeal of the Central Committee of party and Council of ministers of the USSR completely, correctly understood economic and political need of such help to agriculture as increase in purchase prices and, respectively, retail prices for livestock products.
The vast majority of workers of our city, as well as all Soviet people, approved actions of party and the government. With big rise staff of the plants of synthetic products, electrode, a name of Nikolsky, permanent magnets and some other the enterprises worked these days.
Workers and employees seek to make all necessary to make the feasible contribution to business of increase in production of livestock products.
However, to our deep regret, at one of the largest enterprises of our city – at the electric locomotive plant, there was a group of huliganstvuyushchy elements and provokers who used misunderstanding by certain workers of the measures taken by our party and the government broke work of the enterprises, caused disorders in the city and disorganized all normal life.
Hooligans organized attack on representatives of administration of the plant, showed resistance to the Soviet authorities, arranged disorder in group of companies of party, in executive committee of city council, they carried out physical violence over some representatives of party and Soviet bodies and the military personnel.
Companions, how such unprecedented situation in our city could be created?
We with all gravity have to say today that the situation became possible as a result of large shortcomings and omissions of work of group of companies of party and executive committee of city council. Not at height there was also a party organization of the electric locomotive plant. Thereof political-education work with groups of workers appeared in the started state, was carried out formally, without specific conditions of the industrial enterprise. The administration and the party organization of the electric locomotive plant paid attention to living and working conditions of workers at this plant absolutely insufficiently. As a result of it party committee and administration of the plant, without knowing on the substance of moods of some part of workers, did not manage to stop production disorganization in due time. The numerous group of communists and Komsomol members of the plant did not occupy a vanguard role in prevention of the specified disorders.
The Civil Code of party insufficiently deeply penetrated into activity of this largest enterprise and this largest party organization and staff of the plant therefore did not manage to take in due time measures to elimination of serious shortcomings of work of the party organization.
The city town committee of party seriously was not engaged in the analysis of economy of this production, did not take drastic measures on improvement of the organization of production and production living conditions and did not manage to see existence of serious shortcomings of education of workers of the plant and in due time did not correct the party organization.
Companions, giving to all incident a severe party assessment, we have to concentrate efforts of all city party organization on radical improvement of all party and organizational and party and political work.
The Communist Party organization of our city, and, first of all, Communist Party organization of the electric locomotive plant, have to draw serious conclusions from the incident. It is necessary to delve deeper into essence of economy and the organization of production, to take measures to elimination of the shortcomings which are available in this case.
Communist Party organization and all communists are obliged to strengthen the relations with masses, it is better to know everyone working at the enterprise, its interests, its living conditions and inquiries.
Communist Party organizations of vessels, prosecutor's offices and militias have to show more revolutionary vigilance in the work, in due time stop manifestations alien to our socialist system.
Companions, allow me to assure from your name the Central Committee of our party and the government that communists of the city of Novocherkassk, having considered serious shortcomings of the work, will manage to draw the correct conclusions and will use all the knowledge and all the efforts for radical improvement of all links of party and political, organizing and economic work …
The meeting of an asset of the party decides:
- The meeting of an asset of the party angrily condemns a sortie of anti-Soviet elements in the city and demands from each communist and the Komsomol member to mobilize all the forces for the fastest creation in the city of a normal situation and ensuring rhythmical activity of each industrial enterprise, building, establishment, educational institution.
- To city town committee of the CPSU, all primary Communist Party organizations to develop deep explanation of the Appeal of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR and the Resolution of party and government on increase in purchase and retail prices for meat and oil in the collectives.
- To city town committee of the CPSU, Communist Party committee of the electric locomotive plant to take all measures to sharply to raise the level of all political and economic work at the plant, to raise fighting spirit of primary organizations, to mobilize all collective for the solution of the huge tasks which are put forward before a domestic elektrovozostroyeniye the XXII congress of the CPSU.
- To charge to a city town committee of the CPSU to develop actions for strengthening of political work with all groups of workers, having paid special attention to setting of training and education in the highest, average and other educational institutions of the city.
- Meeting of an asset of the party, understanding responsibility for the developed situation and understanding the tasks facing workers of the city on behalf of all party organization of the city assures the Central Committee of party and personally Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev that communists of Novocherkassk will make everything to remove from us that shameful spot which laid down on our party organization will direct all the efforts in fight for new progress of communistic construction in our country.
- To charge to CPSU Group bureau to develop actions for improvement of trade in the city.
- CPSU Group bureau to plan concrete actions for strengthening of patronage work with military units ….
TsDNIRO. F. R-81. Op.22. 71. L.10-13 about.
Responses of citizens on articles in Komsomolskaya Pravda and "The literary newspaper" about June events of 1962 in Novocherkassk
On June-26 22 iyulya1989.
Semyon Semyonovich Shelkovnikov, the member of the CPSU since March, 1944, the major in resignation, the associate professor of philosophy of NPI.
To whom is it necessary? – the only question which arose at me after reading of these two articles. The editorial office "LG" knows that the congress charged to the Supreme Council of the USSR to consider "… that it happened in Novocherkassk in the early sixties … and to make the decision". Why to include obviously thought up "facts" "In the file of the Supreme Council of the USSR": "… till June first … in the twentieth of May the commander of the North Caucasus Military District … received an encryption …", "… two members of Presidium of the Central Committee were in Novocherkassk till June first" …, etc. Whether not for this purpose, to excite public opinion, to create an unhealthy excitement around this question?
M.K. Shaposhnikov, in my opinion, prejudicedly "remembers": "We … did not reach to the area of meters 100 as heard massive fire from automatic machines … 22 or 24 persons were killed … The next morning I learned that the killed were buried secretly". Precautionary "massive fire from automatic machines" up, in air, according to the corresponding team, was really produced. At this moment (as the officers who were together with the soldiers told me) from crowd snatched on several soldiers and began to take away from them automatic machines. Result of fight – one automatic turn struck people.
Correspondents of Komsomolskaya Pravda write: "… it is necessary … to find places of burial of the dead …". And who needs it? To relatives? But they know. In it I have no doubts. In the second half of day (2.06.62), together with two teachers, I was on duty in the hostel THEM. To us one of the accompanying arrived members of Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU came and took an interest in moods of students, and we – whether "Are the killed?". He answered – "Yes". On a question: "Where and when there is funeral? I don't know. About it there was no conversation".
We expressed opinion that it is necessary to bury at the expense of the state, in the presence of relatives, there and then where and when relatives of the dead wish. And to relatives to whom it is necessary under the law to give a lump sum, to grant pensions, to improve living conditions. Having told: "I will report on it" - it left.
So, who needs this "fuss" around the event which happened in Novocherkassk 27 years ago? In my opinion, only that who tries to revive party of the constitutional democrats (cadets) under any other, but "democratic" name: "national democratic party", … "people's democratic front", etc. But it is already other subject …
N. Zemchenko, associate professor of history of the CPSU of NPI
Any secret business causes a lot of idle talks, conjectures, and time of a deliberate lie. It did not pass an event on June 2, 1962 in Novocherkassk.
The publication of article which generally objectively describes the course of events, in our opinion, is timely and useful. It is useful because it rejects various gossips and guesses. And still because at the time of publicity the people have to know the truth, be able to learn lessons from the past what they bitter would not be. About these events started talking on the first congress of People's Deputies.
Article is constructed on stories by eyewitnesses. I am an eyewitness too. But there is one feature of a psychological order – the people seeing the same fact tell about it differently.
From a position of my vision Komsomolskaya Pravda correctly described a situation in the conditions of which disorders at the electric locomotive plant began: a) difficult food situation in the city; b) increase in performance standards and decrease in prices by the worker of the plant coincided with the government decision on increase in retail prices for milk and meat and on dairy and meat products; c) tactlessness of the management (in particular administrations of the plant, and equally city and regional party administration). Dialogue with workers and at members of Presidium of the Central Committee of F.R. Kozlov and A.I. Mikoyan did not turn out. I saw and heard how protesters asked to come to them to a meeting which took place before the building of group of companies of party and to listen to their requests. They said that we are not hooligans that we will not make anything bad, we only want them to listen to us. They allocated group in seven people which had to go to the building of militia and transfer to Kozlov and Mikoyan this request. (Actually they were as I was told, in location of buildings KKUKSov – as far as it is right – I do not know). They also asked that they were connected by phone with K.E. Voroshilov. He at that time held a post of the Chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR.
All these requests came down to transferring to Moscow, to the government an explanation why they hold a meeting and what is wanted.
Nothing it was not made …
All these and other facts are covered in article correctly.
However article applying for the truth somehow casually, inexpressively concerned its second party – huliganstvuyushchy elements, tramps and the interested provokers which not to liking was reformatory activity of Khrushchev used discontent of workers. The fact this obvious, real, but in article about it is told somehow by the way as about the phenomenon minor though provocations and were from where "… empty bottles … departed suddenly shouts began to sound "beat all who in clean". It is necessary to add to it still: riots in the building of a city town committee of party.
And who stood on city town committee balconies from which protesters acted? Except working activists flaunted: the seller of paints for cotton and woolen fabric marketing the products on 20-30 kopeks for powder. Immediately spent on drink revenue and dead-drunk rolled near the plywood suitcase; the middle-aged woman without steps of both legs who constantly sat at an entrance to the Azov market with the two-year-old girl begged alms …". And it who? And that, healthy, whose? These are not ours. These are someone else's. Unfamiliar. What it is necessary to them there? – we argued, looking after all who stood on city town committee balconies. We who are curious were near, having nestled on the armored personnel carrier on which the armed soldiers sat. At two the heads which are tied up by bandage.
Truly as well the fact that Cossack old men festively walked on the central city streets dressed in all armor of a pre-revolutionary Cossack form and at crosses.
Truly as well talk: "They say, Voroshilova demand here? – Correctly demand. Voroshilov and Budenny won the Soviet power, let now and answer".
Or: "My God, pardon, really communists are progont!".
The lawyer S. Oganesov (read his story in article) claiming that the management as if specially sought "… to compromise participants of disorders is not right to create visibility of a gangster plot".
Nobody created this visibility. It was (whether workers NEVZA wanted it or not) is created by the fact of a strike and demonstration to which the begging hysteric persons, tramps, drunkards and some interested persons, but to NEVZU any relation not having began to stick.
Unorganized demonstrations, meetings as movements spontaneous, were doomed to a failure. The spontaneous movement does not give in to management. It gets under influence of adventurers who, being guided by more emotions, than reason, push it not on resolution of conflict, and on an open uproar.
Result of events of 1962 is as follows: workers did not solve an objective because of disorganization of the performance. Irreparable harm to them was done by huliganstvuyushchy groups and degradirovanny elements. But the main damage was caused by administrative bureaucracy which did not manage (and can be, and did not want) to find dialogue with workers of the plant, did not show the necessary flexibility and endurance. An impression was made: the device resisting Khrushchev's reforms, appear, enjoyed a crisis situation in Novocherkassk.
In the reviewed article it is successfully noticed: "Tragic paradox. Objectively both Khrushchev, and nevzovets in that conflict were resisted by the general opponent (bureaucracy – NZ). But workers with anti-Khruschev's slogans took to the streets. And these events were to the good just for those who all means sought to bring closer resignation of the leader, to undermine his authority".
This conclusion of authors of article is quite reasonable.
TsDNIRO. F. R-9. Op.101. 176. L.2-6.