Development of business to Dona in the second half of the XIX century
The group of businessmen developed to Dona, as well as in Russia in general, within several decades after an abolition of serfdom. The area of army of Donskoy had a number of the features connected with execution of military service by Cossacks, management and economic way. As there were no powerful landowner farms and economic remnants of a serfdom during the post-reform period were not considerable, formation of market structures happened in more favorable conditions, than in the center of the country, and went quicker. Process began to develop especially promptly after 1868 when the territory of the Cossack area was open for the free settlement of representatives of all estates of the Russian Empire.
In 1868 the businessman D.A. Pastukhov started construction of steel works in Sulin. In the mid-seventies already three Pastukhov organized the joint-stock company which created the first mountain plant in Russia which was melting cast iron on mineral fuel (anthracite) and developed martin production. In 1874 the plant melted 250 thousand poods of cast iron and steel of excellent quality. Large steel works worked in Taganrog and Makiivka.
In 60-70 years in connection with increase in demand for fuel in the area, new mines opened. Most of them extracted 5-20 thousand poods of coal, some reached production of 200-300 thousand poods, but in the 80th years on large mines (Ilovaisk, Cat's, etc.) received 5-20 million poods a year.
In the early nineties in the field of Donskoy's army was registered 8771 factory enterprises (without mines and steel works): machine-building, iron, gvozdilno-wire, tanning, on processing of agricultural products. In the main weight it were the small enterprises. Tobacco factories, the plant of water pipes, railway workshops, mills treated large.
The industry was concentrated mainly in Rostov and Nakhchivan - on - Don, Taganrog, Novocherkassk, Aleksandrovsk-Grushevske (Shakhty). In these cities there were only 295 enterprises subordinated to factory supervision and about 20 thousand people worked. Rostov possessed the first place on production of manufactured goods and trade in the region. Businessmen brothers Paramonov, Pustovoytov, Asmolov, Kushnarev had the big capitals here. In Taganrog there were boiler, pig-iron and mednoliteyny, skinneries.
Shots of professional workers were formed, metalworkers, miners, tobacconists, food industry workers, skinners were most numerous. In the 80th years, according to incomplete data of statistics of that time, in the field of Donskoy's army 35200 workers worked, from them 45% - at large enterprises. By 1897 the number of workers in the area already exceeded 71 thousand people.
The local commerce and industry bourgeoisie grew and got stronger. In 60-80 years it for more than 70% consisted of Cossacks. By 1980, thanks to the fact that development of business among Cossacks restrained the purposeful policy of the Ministry of Defence and army administration situation changed, and among businessmen and dealers the number of Cossacks decreased to 53%. It did not exclude, however, appearance of such Cossack capitalists as S. Koshkin, E. Paramonov, Ya. Vasilyev. But in general the role of the Cossack capital in area economy quickly decreased. In 1898, according to the Don statistical committee, 6, 5% of the total commercial turnover in not agricultural economy of area fell to its share. Almost in 10 there was in it a share of the domestic not army capital (64, 8%) times more - shareholders and merchants were put in the forefront. More than by 4 times also specific weight foreign, generally French-Belgian was higher, than the capital (28, 7%).
Inflow of the foreign capital to Don amplified every year. Foreigners created the joint-stock companies here or entered the Russian, bought up mines and other enterprises. They to a large extent owned metallurgical and boiler the plants of Taganrog, water supply, gas illumination and the horse railroads of Rostov. They possessed seven large mines of area. In the review of commerce and industry activity of Don region for 1898 it was noted that activity of foreign citizens "is expressed on export of bread abroad and on development of depths of the earth".
By the end of the 19th century in the Don region there was rather steady group of businessmen both in the agrarian sector, and in not agricultural branches of economy. According to the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, in 1905 to Dona lived 6831 owners of the revenue over 1000 rubles gained in different spheres of economic activity. More than a half of such recipients (54, 3%) was the share of agriculture that was explained by quite high development in this industry of the commodity production focused generally to the world market.
Don region had close economic relations with other regions of Russia and through the Rostov and Taganrog ports took out the products to many countries of the world.