Agriculture and agrarian and industrial complex
The Rostov region – one of the largest agricultural regions of the Russian Federation
In the territory in 100 thousand square kilometers 4.2 million people, from them the third part live in rural areas - 1.3 million people.
The main richness of area – its soil resources. The area is located on ordinary, southern chernozems and chestnut soils. In the general structure of the earth the chernozems occupy more than 64% at an average thickness of a fertile layer of 40 - 80 cm.
Agricultural grounds occupy 8.2 million hectares, an arable land – 5.9 million hectares, including irrigated by 232 thousand hectares. The share of the Rostov region in the total area of farmlands of Russia makes 3.9%. On the area of farmlands and acreage of grain crops the area takes the 2nd place in the Russian Federation, on fertility of an arable land - the 10th place among other territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. Area soil climatic conditions, despite periodically repeating droughts, are favorable for production of agricultural products.
In agricultural production - 1.2 thousand agricultural organizations of all types of property, more than 7.7 thousand peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs, 546 thousand personal subsidiary farms of citizens.
Average annual number occupied in agro-industrial complex is 263 thousand people.
In the Rostov region allocate six main natural and agricultural zones.
Northeast – pastoral and grain with the developed pig-breeding and poultry farming. It includes 9 areas: Morozovsky, Milyutinsky, Oblivsky, Tatsinsky, Konstantinovsky, Belokalitvinsky, Tsimlyansk, Soviet, Ust-Donetsky.
The central irrigated – pastoral and vegerable-growing with the developed wine growing and a risoseyaniye. Includes 6 areas: Volgodonsk, Martynovsky, Proletarian, Semikarakorsky, Bagayevsky, Veselovsky.
The Rostov region – among leaders in Russia in gross collecting grain and sunflower. The perspective directions of agrarian and industrial complex of area also are: pond fish breeding, production of livestock products, vegetables, processing of agricultural products with the subsequent bringing to the consumer.
About 20% of the made products of agriculture in the Southern Federal District fall to the share of the Rostov region.
More than 72% of gross output of agriculture of area are produced in branch of crop production. Its development is based on increase in the standard of farming, implementation of energy saving technologies, new grades and hybrids of grain, oil-bearing crops, increase in efficiency of use of farmlands.
The grain direction in crop production has paramount value. On cultivation grain the area takes the 2nd place in Russia. Under grain crops about 67% of acreage are occupied. The main grain culture – a winter wheat. Crops of summer barley, corn, millet, rice, a buckwheat, peas, soy are widespread. The leading commercial crop is sunflower. Collecting grain crops annually averages 12 million tons, oil-bearing crops – to 1.7 million tons.
The Rostov region delivers grain and sunflower oil to northern regions and industrially developed centers of the country. Besides, it is the largest exporter of products of agriculture and products of its processing. Export of products of agro-industrial complex on foreign market makes more than 17 million tons per year, including grain crops of 12.9 million tons. Annual export of sunflower oil – 1.3 million tons. The Don enterprises besides grain and oil export grain, small loafs, flour, treacle, confectionery.
In the Rostov region — favorable conditions for development of gardening and wine growing. Availability of fertile soils, abundance of heat and sunny days, irrigation create prerequisites for growth of fruit and berry cultures and grapes of the most various breeds and grades.
To Dona the livestock production is traditionally developed. Specialize in this industry in the dairy and meat direction, pig-breeding, sheep breeding, horse breeding and poultry farming. Annually in the area more than 340 thousand tons of meat (in live weight), 1094 thousand tons of milk, 1895 million pieces of eggs are produced.
The glory to Don region was made also by the fish industry. The Sea of Azov, large reservoirs (Tsimlyansk and Manychsky), the rivers, lakes, man-made ponds – everywhere is fish.
Food and processing industry wins first place among the processing productions, its contribution to the total industrial amount makes 17%.
In this industry more than 150 large and medium-sized enterprises work, about one thousand organizations of small business work. In the area the products practically of all branches of food and processing industry except for sugar are made.
An assortment number of the enterprises of food and processing industry makes over 2 thousand names of food products, more than 500 views from which conform to the European standards.