The Rostov region is in the southern part of the East European Plain and partially in North Caucasus region, occupying the extensive territory in the river basin of the Lower Don. On the nature of a surface the territory of the area represents the plain dismembered by valleys of the rivers and beams. The maximum height above sea level - 253 m. From the North on the territory of the area Central Russian Upland comes, east part of Donets Ridge in the West puts, in a southeast part of the area the Salsk and Manychsky ridge and Yergeni Hills tower.
Distance from Moscow to Rostov-on-Don – 1076 km. The area occupies the space of 100.8 thousand sq.km that makes 0.6% of the territory of Russia, has the extent of 470 km from the North on the South, 455 km from the West on the East.
The Rostov region has overland and water borders with the following regions: in the West and the northwest - with the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine the total length of border of 660 km, in the North and the northeast - with the Voronezh and Volgograd regions, in the east and the southeast - with Kalmykia, in the south - with the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions, in the southwest is washed by Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov, having sea frontier with Ukraine.
In the territory of the area one of the largest rivers of Europe — Don (2 thousand km) flows, the Tsimlyansk Reservoir (volume of 24 billion cubic meters) is located. The main inflows of Don — the river the Seversky Donets and Manych are navigable. Lakes occupy only 0.4% of the territory of the area.
The area has favorable moderate and continental climate. Average air temperature in January - (-7C), in July - (+ 23C). Duration of sunshine is equal to 2050-2150 hours a year. From June to September the average monthly indicators of duration of sunshine in Rostov-on-Don and Sochi differ from each other a little.
The average annual amount of precipitation makes 424 mm. Drop out mainly on atmospheric fronts of cyclones. Their quantity decreases in the direction from the West (650 mm) by the East (up to 400 mm). High temperatures of summer and the long vegetative period provide the increased productivity of wheat, melon, garden cultures and grapes.
The nature of the Rostov region is very various. Steppe open spaces, forest oases, the floodplain of the Don River, the coast of the Sea of Azov, is a haven for more than hundred animal species and valuable trade breeds of fishes.
The territory of the area lies within a steppe zone, only the extreme southeast is the transitional area from steppes to semi-deserts. The woods and bushes covered 5.6 percent of land fund while the most part of area is engaged with farmlands, mainly at high-fertile chernozems.