Natural resources and environmental protection
The Rostov region treats a steppe zone and has various natural resources.
One of the main competitive advantages of the Rostov region are land resources and climatic conditions which contribute to the dynamic development of agro-industrial complex. Thanks to the southern situation (46-50 ° sowing. latitudes) in the territory of the area the abundance of sunlight and heat is noted. Duration of sunshine increases from the North to the south from 2067 h/year (of Millerovo) up to 2143 h/year (Rostov-on-Don). Period duration with a temperature above 10 °C fluctuates across the territory from 160 to 180 days.
True richness of area are soils. The basis of arable lands of area is formed by chernozems and chestnut soils. Chernozems make 65% of the territory of the area, these are 4-5% of chernozems of Russia. Chestnut soils are characteristic of drier eastern regions.
A variety of mineral resources with which Don region is rich is caused by features of a geological structure of the territory of the area. Among them fuel resources are the major.
Almost all central part of the area is carboniferous, reserves of coal are concentrated in 9 carboniferous areas.
Coal-fields of East Donbass thanks to high qualities are renowned. The branded composition of coals is various – from long-flame to the anthracites making 86% of explored reserves and being the first in caloric content.
The total number of reserves of coal in the territory of the Rostov region considered up to the depth of 1500 m makes 13,523.9 million tons.
In borders of area are open and considered 21 fields of hydrocarbon raw materials: 16 gas, 3 gas-condensate, 1 oil-gas condensate and 1 gas-oil. The explored geological reserves of free gas make 31.183 bcm, and previously estimated – 17.673 bcm. The same indicators for oil are equal, respectively, 1.891 (taken – 0.783) and 1.679 (taken – 0.713) to one million tons, and for condensate – 0.188 (taken – 0.162) and 0.001 (taken – 0.001) to one million tons. Perspective resources of the Rostov region make 54.732 million tons of oil (taken) and 69.405 bcm of gas (geological).
Metal minerals in the history of development of mineral resources of the Rostov region were studied very restrictedly. As a result in the region there are no commercial fields of metals.
At the same time numerous ore occurences (gold, tungsten, molybdenum, titan and zircon scatterings), along with favorable geological conditions, allow to judge prospects of area concerning metals. The territory of the area is of the greatest interest concerning identification of new fields and additional exploration of the revealed perspective sites of titanic ores of loose type.
In the territory of the area, refractory clays (Vladimirovskoye, Fedorovskoye Zapadnoye, Kiselevsky and Hookean fields), flux limestones (Zhirnovsky field), forming sands (Karpov-Yarsky, Millerovsky, Suturminsky and Tarasovsky fields), glass sands belong to mineral raw materials of regional value (The sandy field, Degtevsky II, Millerovsky sites).
In the territory of the area 2 fields of cement raw materials are explored: Rogalikskoye and Kulbakinskoye. Besides, there is a high resource potential (22 billion t) of quality cement raw materials presented by perspective sites with favorable mining-and-geological conditions for open-cast mining and near transport means of communication. Generally they are concentrated in Millerovsky, Tarasovsky, Tatsinsky, Neklinovsky, Matveevo-Kurgansky areas.
In recent years a number of fields and perspective sites of the nonconventional types of mineral raw materials (bentonites, glauconites, siliceous breeds) used as natural sorbents, natural ameliorants, mineral fertilizers is open.
Resources for the construction industry
Raw materials of local value are popular minerals which make a considerable share of mineral resources of a construction complex of the Rostov region. In the territory of the area 1128 fields and sites of popular minerals (clays and loams, sandstone and limestone, sand, quartzite, marl, chalk, clay slates) are revealed.
The area has a wide choice of fields of construction materials: stones construction for production of crushed stone, sands construction, clays and loams for production of a brick. The most widespread type of clay raw materials in the Rostov region are loams which are spread, as well as clay, practically in all areas of the Rostov region.
In the territory of East Donbass a large number of pedigree dumps of the mines formed as a result of industrial development of coal which represent technogenic fields and a new source of mineral raw materials for use in the construction purposes is concentrated.
Water objects of the Rostov region belong to a reservoir of the Sea of Azov, from them the most part – to a river basin of Don.
The river network of the Rostov region is presented by 4551 water objects with a total length of 24,289 km (density of river network of 0.24 km/sq.km) most of which part is presented by the small rivers and streams, temporary waterways which are drying up during the summer period. The rivers of the Rostov region beginning on heights have narrow valleys with the slopes which are actively cut up by ravines and beams, floodplains rather narrow, extending at an exit to the plain. The mixed food with prevalence snow is characteristic of the rivers of area (70–80%).
The largest rivers of the Rostov region are Don with its inflows of the first and second order by the Seversky Donets, Manych, Kalitva, Sal and Egorlyk (inflow of Manycha) and also the rivers flowing into Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov – Eya, Mius and others. In the delta Dona and Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov one of the largest channels of the Azovo-Chernomorsky pool – Azovo-Donskoy the sea navigation channel is located. Among regions of the federal district the Rostov region ranks third on the extent of river network after the Volgograd region and Krasnodar Krai.
According to Institute of an ozyorovedeniye of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the territory of the Rostov region more than 3.1 thousand lakes and artificial reservoirs with a total area about 1.85 thousand sq.km (ozyornost of 1.83%), including about 330 lakes more than 0.01 sq.km are located. The majority of lakes of area belongs to inundated type, they are located in valleys Dona, the Seversky Donets, Manycha, Sal and small water currents.
The area and number of lakes and artificial reservoirs, swamps and boggy lands are changeable, they depend on natural (the water mode, the climatic phenomena, bogging, etc.) and anthropogenic (drainage or flood of territories, regulation of a drain, etc.) factors.
The total area of the forest land of the Rostov region is 360.6 thousand hectares, including - the widespread reserves and wildlife areas which are carefully keeping the nature Dona.
Among forest plantings prevail oak (45%) and pine (21%). The woods of area conceal in themselves still insufficiently mastered recreational potential.
In the Rostov region within three seasons (excepting summer) hunting for a natatorial game, quails, partridges, pheasants, hoofed animals (deer, a roe, a boar, a fallow deer, an elk) and also on fur animals (hare hare, a fox, a raccoon dog) is possible.
Possibilities of the Don fishing are in many respects inaccessible in other regions of Russia as more than 90 species of fish, such as sturgeon, a catfish, a bream, a pike perch, ram, rybets, chekhon, a silver carp, a sazan, a pike, a perch and the well-known Don herring live in open reservoirs.
Photo album about the nature of Don region
Photo album "Flora and fauna of Don region"
State service "Delivery of permissions to contents and cultivation of the objects of fauna which are not carried to hunting resources in semi-free conditions and artificially created habitat (except for the objects of fauna included in the Red List of the Russian Federation), except for permissions to contents and cultivation of objects of fauna in semi-free conditions and artificially created habitat which are in especially protected natural territories of federal importance"
Commissions and councils
The official site - http://минприродыро.рф/