Temernitsky customs and Saint Dimitry of Rostov's fortress
Emergence of the city of Rostov-on-Don and initial stage of its history are connected with construction of Temernitsky customs and Saint Dimitry of Rostov's fortress. During the Azov campaigns of Peter I of 1695-96 the Cossacks drew the attention of the tsar to steep slopes Don and a source which he called the Rich well, or the Rich source. Near a source decided to put fortress, but it was not necessary to make it to Peter I. After an unsuccessful Prutian campaign of 1711 Russia was forced to give to Turks Azov, the Dona branches, to raze strengthenings in Taganrog and other fortresses constructed in the south of the country. In the 18th century customs control of the goods imported and taken out from Don was introduced.
In 1730 according to Anna Ioanovna's instructions on Vasilyevsky hillocks near Starocherkassk on the place of the monastic retrashement built according to Peter I's order on the project and under the leadership of the engineer Dekolonga built the fortress called by the name of St Ann. The customs placed in fortress could not perform the functions. On river crossings there were Cossack outposts. The attempt of royal officials to limit trade turnovers of the Don atamans and foremen caused them discontent, and numerous complaints departed to St. Petersburg therefore Elizabeth Petrovna Imperatritsa's decree on a construction of customs "was issued on December 15, 1749... to Dona, at Temernik's mouth, against the natural boundary called the Rich well where also the Don Cossacks can do the business visitors in Greeks, Turks and Armenians...". The customs was named by Temernitska by the name of the rivers. To the middle of the 18th century the Temernitsky customs and the port which soon arose about it began to play an important role in economic life of the Southeast of Russia. It was the only point through which Russia could do business ports of the Azov, Black and Mediterranean seas.
The settlement of customs was small: the number of its inhabitants did not exceed from 1749 for 1761 thousands of people, generally it were families of soldiers of fortress of St Ann. Their houses and state warehouses for a warehouse of goods became some kind of first planning of the future of Rostov. Territories around the Temernitsky outpost were gradually built up. There is Dolomanovsky forshtadt (from among suburban semi-Cossack regiments of fortress of St Ann, policemen of Cossacks, or dolmans, from here and the name).
In the 40th the Russian military engineers strongly look for the place where it was possible to create more powerful strengthening. The project of fortress was offered in 1745 by the engineer Sipyagin, but he was not approved just as six more projects made in 1748 the Highest public institution of Russia - the Ruling Senate - specially was engaged in consideration of projects of new fortress as everything was supposed to be constructed by the last word of military equipment. In ten years the group of engineers (M. Dedenev, D. Debosket, M. Martynov, L. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, S. Kozmin, M. Mordvinov, etc.) made two projects. The first provided construction of fortress from a stone (cost of 674.4 thousand rubles), had to be agrees to the second (cost of 438.8 thousand rubles) of strengthening earth, but "in identical lines that in a consequence it is convenient to remake". Projects got approval, and on December 20, 1760 the garrison of Anninsky fortress was translated to the Rich source.
April 6, 1761. The decree of the Empress Elizabeth new fortress received the name of "the St. Dimitry of Rostov's fortress". On September 23, 1761 there was its solemn bookmark. In the fall of 1761 big construction works which went hard were developed. The region of future fortress was crossed perpendicularly to Don by deep beams which filling required tens of thousands of carts of the earth. Builders lacked food and money. So, in one of documents of 15.06.1762 it is said: "With the introduction in work of last 1761 December of the 17th by the decree, wage money until now did not receive from anywhere and being in that work as a dress and other very broke that in work cannot walk in clothes in such frost".
The construction of earth fortress was carried out under the leadership of the experienced military engineer A.I. Rigelman. According to its instruction for construction of fortress and houses in it in 1761 on the Kiziterinsky beam the brick-works were built. The stone for construction was broken at the Rich source whether bring the wood from Leontyevsky and Deaf buyerak - the area of the Mius and Kalmius Rivers. At that time coast of these rivers were covered with deep forests in which grew a beech, a hornbeam, an oak. The wood was cut, alloyed rafts across Mius almost to Mius Liman, from there on horses and oxen carried to fortress. In 1761 seven redoubts from the floor party were filled. Because of the gullied area a coastal part of a serf fencing received other decision, than was projected. Construction of earth strengthenings and the main buildings in fortress ended in 1763.
The Rostov fortress had great strategic value. In this regard it became the most powerful and large among the southern fortresses. Its circle exceeded 3.5 km, and the area was about 70 tithes. The system of its strengthenings was a new word in fortification art. Fortress had the original star-shaped form in the plan. From the floor party nine redoubts connected by eight ravelins acted, forming thus eight fronts. Redoubts, starting with southwest on a circle to northeast, had the following names: Troitsk, Anninsky, Andrew the First-Called, Ekaterina's, Elizabethan, Petrovsky, Pavlovsky, Alexander Nevsky, Donskoy.
Redoubts were surrounded on perimeter with a deep ditch with strengthened kontreskarpy. The coastal plateau occupied with fortress towered on the 30th sazhen (64 m) over the level of Don. On break terraces from the river the system of strengthenings was created. Adjoined extreme redoubts Troitsk and the Don redana between which there was Dimitry of Rostov's bastion with a kronverok. Under redanam Temernitsky and Aksay redoubts were located, it is lower than three more batteries. On the lower terrace was redan Rich from which on the parties semi-bastions Azov and Cherkassk were placed. Besides, in redoubts powder cellars in the form of the extensive underground constructions blocked by beams with a setup were built.
Fortress had numerous garrison, was armed with 238 tools and for half a century was rear base of the Russian troops.
In a fortification was two gate. With the West in fortress conducted the Arkhangelsk gate, with the East - Of St. George. Inside planned a grid of the rectangular quarters divided by streets 10 and 5 the put-off width, and wide streets went perpendicularly to the river, from the North on the South. Centralnaya Street of fortress passed towards the Rich source and received the name of Bogatyanovsky Lane (nowadays Kirov Avenue). Fortress occupied the space which is nowadays limited to M. Gorkogo and Stanislavsky's streets, lanes Nakhchivan and Chekhova.
In building of fortress the Pokrovsky Cathedral located on the central square topped with an octahedral drum and a dome dominated. From the West it was adjoined by the three-storied bell tower, and from the South - one more small church. Facades of the main office buildings of the Defense Ministry (the house for the commandant, garrison school - at it 216 pupils, a jail were registered) were turned on this square. In the center of fortress 28 soldier's barracks, 7 proviantsky and 4 artillery warehouses, military hospital were placed. Quarters were also built up with officer houses, houses for merchants and handicraftsmen, benches and public houses. By the end of 18 century there were five churches here: Cathedral Pokrovsk, Kazan, Nikolaev, Rozhdestvo-Bogorodichnaya (at that time was called Merchant) and All Saints.
Stability and security of Priazovye from the Turkish attacks led to the fact that trade turnovers of Temernitsky customs sharply increased. In 1758 its turn made 86989 rub, and in 1762 - 240220 rub. According to the historian of the Russian commerce M. Chulkov, the Temernitsky port in 1762 was visited by 26 vessels on which the Greek, Bulgarian and Turkish merchants brought not only goods, but even the relatives. Many of them lodged at Temernitsky port. In 1768 the population of fortress made over five thousand people.
In 1768 in connection with construction of shipyard (near present Budennovsky Avenue) there came the admiral O.N. Senyavin here.
In fortress there began service the glorified Russian naval commander Fedor Ushakov: he served on pram No. 5 protecting the mouth of Don as a part of the Azov flotilla, then was made in lieutenants and ordered four transport vessels. Forming garrisons for defensive strengthenings between Don and Kuban, in 1778 the fortress was visited by A.V. Suvorov. Then he was here quite often in 1782-1784.
The construction of fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov aiming at protection of Temernitsky customs became an important stage in the history of the city. With the fortress device the name of Temernitsky customs disappears from official papers and is replaced with the names "Dolomanovsky Forshtadt". Thus, the pioneer settlement demands to itself for protection of strengthening, and then when strengthening is arranged, the settlement turns into the first forshtadt of fortress. So there are forshtadta: in 1750 - Dolomanovsky or Cossack, in 1763 - Midday; in 1765 - Soldier's or Merchant.
Building of forshtadt had regular planning along the coast of Don, characteristic of the Russian military settlements of the 18th century. Over time planning of forshtadt turns into the system of city streets and quarters, their territory increases, approaching fortress borders. The buildings providing life of the population which is generally engaged in trade - a town hall, customs with warehouses, the exchange with 52 shops and warehouses become more various. Within modern Rostov-on-Don Soldier's forshtadt it was limited from East side to Voroshilovsky Avenue, from the West - Budyonnovsk, from the South - Shaumyan Street. Dolomanovsky forshtadt was less Soldier's. He lasted from Budennovsky Avenue to Dolomanovsky Lane, and from Don was limited to Turgenevskaya Street, north of Shaumyan Street the desert steppe which is cut through by a wide General beam on which bottom Shapov the stream falling into the Temernik River streamed extended.
Coast of Don occupied buildings forshtadt - the Engineering yard with warehouses and the business yard of Artillery department. Port activity was concentrated at the Rich source where the wooden pier was constructed.
In 1779, at Catherine the Great's will, to Don the resettlement of the Armenian community from the Crimea was organized. Immigrants were offered to found the city with the name Nakhchivan in the Midday forshtadt of fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov. Midday inhabitants were moved in this regard in the Soldier's forshtadt which is renamed into Merchant. There comes the new period in the history of Rostov, the period of existence of one more city, Nakhchivan, in the territory adjacent to St. Dimitry of Rostov's fortress. In 1785 for all settlement Gorodovaya the diploma" is established ", and fortress receives the municipal government.
After the end of the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-74 Dimitry of Rostov's fortress loses value of boundary strengthening. At the same time the role of its forshtadt which Alexander I's decree are for the first time called on August 17, 1806 the city of Rostov, and subsequently - Rostov-on-Don, unlike Rostov Yaroslavl increases.
In 1811 the district city of Rostov-on-Don of the Ekaterinoslavsky province was finally formed of the former forshtadt of fortress. By this time fortress strongly decayed, earth constructions gradually collapsed. In 1835 the garrison of fortress of Dimitry of Rostov, weapon, ammunition, ammunition were sent to the Anapa fortress. The territory of fortress began to be built up gradually, earth mounds were razed.