negative consequences of drug taking for human health
I. CONSEQUENCES OF ABUSE OF DRUGS AND PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
(for experts, parents)
1. Stages of development of defeat of an organism
There is no harmless or low-harmful drug and psychoactive substance. The main myths with harmlessness are connected with the fact that destructive consequences collect over time, and at the first stages are not so noticeable. But all the same, negative changes begin from the very beginning of the use.
There are general consequences from abuse (similar for all dependences), and is specific (which are shown only at certain dependences).
All consequences of the use can be divided into three levels.
The first part is reversible changes. The most part of consequences of the use is reparable over time just the use termination. However, at resumption of the use the organism very quickly returns to a former state.
The second part – slaboobratimy (partially reversible) consequences. It is possible to heal them, but completely it will not be possible to cure (will remain as chronic diseases). Prevention of these diseases will be necessary.
The third part – irreversible consequences. Usually appear closer to the third stage of dependence. These consequences do not recover in any way, it is only possible to support life at the special supporting treatment (palliative treatment).
2. General consequences
Damages of nervous system
Encephalopathies (damages of a brain, a manifestation form from small violations of mental processes to psychosis)
Polyneuropathies (damages of nerves, manifestations from small violations of coordination before serious violations of a motive system, paralyzes, paresis).
Damages of a liver
Damage of a liver at the use develops usually on stages:
1) fat dystrophy (90-100% abusing):
- simple obesity - is reversible;
- obesity in combination with the beginning necrosis - is partially reversible;
- obesity, necrosis, reorganization of dolkovy structure of a liver – is irreversible.
2) hepatitis - inflammatory damage of a liver (10-30% of alcoholics; 80% of addicts)
Hypertensia and tachycardia (violations of a rhythm of heart – 100% using).
Cardiomyopathy (the cardiac muscle is changed in the absence of pathology of cardiac arteries, at early stages it is reversible)
Coronary heart disease (violation of blood supply of heart owing to damage of cardiac arteries, it is partially reversible)
Heart failure (decrease in sokratitelny ability of a cardiac muscle, it is irreversible).
3. Specific consequences
Brain. Toxic encephalopathy – damage of a brain, is shown in the form of decrease in intelligence, a memory impairment, violation of ability to think, to distinctly express, concentrate, make decisions and to perform tasks, headaches, dizzinesses.
Heart. Slow down heartbeat and cause pressure drop.
Liver. Toxic hepatitis.
Immunity. Sharp decrease in immunity.
Digestive tract. Sharp or chronic gastritis, chronic pancreatitis, ulcer of stomach and duodenum.
Veins. Phlebitis (inflammation of veins), thrombosis (obstruction of veins), fibrosis (additional pathological fabrics) of a venous wall and "disappearance" of superficial veins.
Blood. Sepsis, blood infection – abscesses, furuncles, trophic ulcers.
Bones. Osteoporosis – calcium loss (loosening, fragility of bones).
Teeth and jaws. The fabrics surrounding tooth collapse: a periodontal disease (inflammation of a gum with shaking of teeth), periodontosis (destruction of tooth cells).
Joints. In connecting tissue of joints drug disintegration products, from here an ache, pains, thickenings and consolidations of some joints collect (on wrists, feet).
Kidneys. Renal failure.
"Screw" (a psychostimulator the methamphetamine prepared in the handicraft way including - from the medicines containing ephedrine)
Violation of blood circulation in a brain. Destruction of internals, first of all hearts, liver, kidneys. There are irreversible changes at the cellular level and already existing chronic diseases amplify. The immunity and resilience of an organism to infections decreases. Teeth collapse.
Toxic encephalopathy – an incoordination of movements, speeches (in 3-4 months of the use), weak-mindedness, paralysis, violation of reflexes. Damages of kidneys, liver. Involuntarily salivation and violation of a reflex of swallowing.
Gastritis, chronic pancreatitis, toxic hepatitis, nephrite, encephalopathy (decrease in memory and intelligence, heavy feeling in the head – the "cotton" head, slowness of rekation; typical complaints of a kodeinshchik: "you cease to understand what occurs", "it is difficult to be at loss for words", "you grow dull", "you go as deafened".
The person decays alive. Blood poisoning. Damage of internals – a liver, kidneys, a brain.
Collects in an organism, at excess of critical concentration of a kidney and a liver refuse (average life expectancy – 2 years). Oppression of a blood system – decrease in hemoglobin to a minimum. Damage of the central nervous system (epileptic seizures, encephalopathy, weak-mindedness), liver diseases (hepatitis), hearts (arrhythmia), an eye (the sight up to a partial or total blindness decreases).
ANY DEPENDENCE IS THE PROGRESSING DISEASE WHICH CONSEQUENCES LEAD FROM THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE USE TO GRADUAL DESTRUCTION OF THE ORGANISM AND SUBSEQUENTLY BY PREMATURE DEATH.
II. MATERIALS FOR THE CONVERSATION "CONVERSATION WITH TEENAGERS ABOUT DRUGS: WE DISCREDIT MYTHS"
(for use in work with minors)
Drugs. Presently this word was heard practical by everyone. However it is not enough who really knows, what is it. Let's be defined.
Drugs it is possible to call any substances changing a mental condition of the person. Alcohol and tobacco, by the way, too quite conform to these requirements. But they are accepted by society and allowed by the law in many countries. Further we will mean by the word "drugs" chemicals, both natural, and synthetic, causing psychological and physical dependence in the person.
The psychological dependence on drug is shown that the person by means of drug wishes to achieve internal balance and to seek to experience again and again effect of drug. But its action gradually replaces all positive emotions, usual for the person.
The physical dependence appears owing to inclusion of drug in process of a metabolism. It becomes necessary for the person just as food or water. Without it the condition of physical discomfort (pain) of varying severity is observed.
There is a set of the prejudices connected with drugs which are incorrect in a root and are based on the wrong information. About drugs many myths are written. Let's consider the most widespread of them.
Myth 1: "In life everything needs to be tried"
For some reason at the majority enters the concept "try everything" — "to try all bad". And why not to try to become kinder and to help people? To visit Everest? To raft on kayaks down the river? Go on a safari? The same financial expenses, pleasures it is more and will be that to grandchildren to tell. Or perhaps for a change, you decide to make outstanding career and already now will begin to prepare for receipt in MSU?
If to try everything, one life will not be enough. And you will not see the life because drug will tear off it. One wise philosopher told: "Everything that does not kill us, does us stronger". And so, drugs kill and it is the truth. Find to yourself such hobbies which you will develop and do by strong personalities, but will not take away your life.
Myth 2: "There are "light" drugs, they are almost harmless
Actually drugs are drugs. Too get used to "light" drugs. And their use (not to mention production, storage and distribution) is illegal in our country. Besides, statistically, every second consumer of "light" drugs sooner or later, passes to "heavier". From "light" drugs the same as from "heavy", die or go crazy. How you think that the slingshot or a gun are more dangerous? It is possible to kill with both that and another if precisely to aim. Drugs beat without miss.
Myth 3: "The single use of drug will not result in dependence"
So can seem only at the first stages of intake of the stupefying substances. Perhaps, one inhaling, a tablet will not make the person at once drug-addicted. However the most part of the people who at least once took any drug does not stop on it (you remember about psychological dependence?). Therefore the single use of drugs is the first step to drug addiction. Only units, having accepted once drug, can stop on it. It should be added that today many drugs cause dependence (and even death!) from the first dose.
Myth 4: "Drugs help to solve vital problems"
Actually, drugs just on some, very small, time suppress feeling of alarm and uncertainty in the forces, forcing out from consciousness of a thought of difficult, but necessary acts or questions, answers to which are not simple. Such way "decisions" of problems helps to create visibility of wellbeing, but problems remain. The postponed affairs have property to collect and force to work, anyway, and often non-optimal image. Besides, taking of drug and the stupefying substances change mentality, and not to the best: at the drug addict irritability, the suspiciousness reaching psychosis, sense of guilt, diffidence and, as a result, - estrangement from close and surrounding appears or increases.
If you have problems, drugs will only aggravate them.
Myth 5: "Persons of no character become addicts only weak-willed,"
Any person who allowed drug in the life can become an addict. Though many at the beginning of a way are sure that personally it will never happen to it. I assure you: none of those who suffer from drug addiction today, planned to become an addict. All of them were sure that this problem will not concern them. But reality such is that the stupefying substances act on all equally, irrespective of lines or properties of the person. Whether it is worth playing "the Russian roulette", knowing that in a revolver the cartridges are inserted into everything the Camorra of a drum?
Drug is a trap. Drug addiction as a shark with bent in inside teeth. It is easy to get to this trap, and it is almost impossible to be chosen.
There is only one way not to become dependent on drugs never is them to try!
If you never tried drug – you are a strong personality and it is worthy respect!
Free life is much more interesting, than dependence on drugs. Do not look for the artificial emotions turning the person into the slave. Learn to derive pleasure from natural, positive and useful things – sport, friendship, love, travel, study, self-expression, creativity. It is your freedom!
III. ROLE OF FAMILY IN PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTION
(for experts, parents)
How can parents keep life of the child from drug addiction? There is such parable: "The traveler going along the river heard desperate baby's cries. Having run up to the coast, he saw the children sinking in the river and started saving them. Having noticed passing by the person, he began to call to the aid. That began to help those who else stayed afloat. Having seen the third traveler, they called him to the aid too. But that, without paying attention to appeals, quickened the pace. "Unless the fate of children is indifferent for you? - rescuers asked. And the traveler answered: "I see that you together so far cope. And I will reach turn, I learn why children get to water, and I will try to prevent it".
This parable - confirmation to the fact that to a solution of the problem of the children who got into a difficult life situation there are two approaches: - to prevent the first, - to save the second. A task of parents - "to reach turn of the river and not to allow children to fall in water", i.e. to be engaged in prevention.
What can parents make? First of all, to pay attention to itself, to the behavior and living position. Remember, please, how many times for the last two-three weeks you came home and sincerely, without some singular educational problem, "in sober mind and sensible memory" said to the child about how life what pleasure to be live and healthy to love, to laugh, cry is fine …
Among general moaning about bad people, the growing prices, not the best living conditions, bad weather, about deterioration in an ecological situation whether we help own children to believe that life despite all problems and difficulties – a great and invaluable gift?
If ourselves do not consider that life is fine and surprising, and we do not prove it to children on the example that we can oppose to the promotion claiming: except tobacco, alcohol, drugs, debauchery and violence, in this to enjoy life there is nothing and to live without it practical it does not make sense. We, parents, have no right to forget that for the child – the most effective example of cheerfulness or mortal boredom are his parents.
The use of narcotic substances by the child quite often begins in conditions which are created by ourselves. Certainly, irresponsibly, but unless from it it is easier? If as a result it turns out that our own children pay for our mistakes in education. Unfortunately, presently the parental love is often substituted for material security of the child. Bought the son the "abrupt" gadget – means, paid attention. But whether you are sure that in soul of your child now – rest? And suddenly instead of the iPhone he awfully wants that the father drove with it in soccer. The most important principles of family education is safety, unity and love, readiness to offer the time and energy, for the sake of the neighbor.
It is important to create in family such conditions for the child under which he will not want to use the stupefying substances to find peace of mind. Become the friend for the child - teach him to cope with a set of teenage problems: the conflicts, a low self-assessment, inability to resist to influence of group, independent acceptance of the choice, etc.
If the child comfortably feels in family, then he, most likely, will not begin to try drugs. But if the child has feeling of loneliness if at a difficult moment he has nobody to find support and protection, then drug can become for it what is not enough for it in life.
It is difficult to develop the general rules which work always and with everyone. We will try to offer you some principles which, perhaps, will help to make your communication with the child more effective, or will help to look at ordinary things from a different perspective.
For a minute think of how you talk to the son or the daughter. Whether often you criticize, you remind something, you threaten, you give lectures or morals, you interrogate, you deride, you carp and you grumble? These widespread methods of communication with children even at the most good intentions of parents lead to loss of good relations, complicate and impoverish communication. Imagine that you give moralizing lectures to friends or, sneering, you criticize them. It is unlikely they for a long time will remain your friends.
Effective communication assumes existence of mutual respect when children and adults frankly and without fear of criticism or condemnation can express the beliefs and feelings, knowing that they will be accepted. To accept - means to show that feelings of the child are clear to you even if you also do not share their belief.
Listening to the child, let it know and experience that you understand his state, feelings connected with that event about which he tells you. For this purpose listen, and then by the own words repeat what he told you. You will kill three hares at once: - the child will make sure that you hear him; - the child will be able to hear himself kind from outside and is better to realize the feelings; - the child will make sure that you understood him correctly.
Listening to the child, you watch his mimicry and gestures, analyze them. Sometimes children assure us that be at them all right, but the shivering chin or shining eyes speak absolutely about another. When words and a mimicry do not coincide, always give preference to a mimicry, a look, a pose, gestures, tone of a voice. You watch with what tone you answer questions of the child. Your tone "says" not less clearly, than your words. It should not be derisive. Encourage, you praise the child for diligence and efforts as well as for achievements. Notice even the smallest progress. Let know that the diligence and persistence is frequent more important than result. Help children to set the realistic purposes. If they or their parents expect too much, failure can become destructive for their personality. Your child has to know that its personal, let objectively small in comparison with others, achievements will cause in you the same pride and the same admiration as the highest achievements and victories of others.
Correcting errors, criticize acts and actions, but not the child. Let to the child know the true responsibility. They perceive performance of the duties as achievement. Researches of psychologists showed that children in the life behave more responsibly when adults impose reasonable restrictions for their freedom. Help the child to think independently. You speak language which will help to develop independence: "It is your choice", "Itself resolve this issue", "You can be responsible for it", "This your decision". Parents have to bring children to independent decision-making and learn to doubt correctness of opinions of age-mates.
Respect the need for a privacy, for private life. This principle demands some distance that can seem for certain parents impossible. Find time and forces for joint activity. Polls of children show that they love when parents spend time with them even if it is connected with performance of housework.
You teach the child to solve problems, but not to avoid them. If it is impossible to him independently, pass all solution of a difficult life situation with it together. Divide problems of the child and give him support. Do not forbid categorically. Ask questions. Limit the comments relating to the bad parties of character of the child, avoid to focus attention on its weaknesses. At detection of the weaknesses by others children feel pain, and the reminder on shortcomings can strongly slow down communication with adults. Researches showed that the people abusing the stupefying medicines usually have a low self-assessment. The child having a positive, high self-assessment, most likely, will have self-esteem to refuse alcohol intake and drugs. He will resist pressure of people around more actively, than that which considers itself(himself) "worse than others".
Skills of opposition to pressure of peers are such acts or actions which parents can bring up in the child for refusal of the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs.
For education of opposition to pressure use five rules:
1. Teach the child to appreciate identity in people and in yourself. At a well-chosen moment ask the child to tell what makes the person special, on anybody not similar, unique. Ask what is pleasant to the child in own identity, add to the description more than its good lines which he will not call.
2. Discuss together the child a concept of friendship. Ask it to make the description of the true friend: "the friend is..." and "the friend is not...". While it works, make the description. Talk, comparing how many identical characteristics in your descriptions and find out who such true friend.
3. Help the child to learn to speak to people "no". Children need support of parents to tell "no" to pressure of foreign adults or peers. Explain to the child that in some situations it is absolutely necessary to insist on respect for himself. These situations, first of all, - the offer of tobacco, alcohol, drugs.
4. There are situations provoking pressure from peers. You can help the child to avoid hit in such situations, having introduced special rules. For example, your child will not stay at home at the friends if you have certain suspicions or you cannot contact parents of his friend and discuss the issues interesting you. It is important that the children surrounding your child adhered to healthy standards of behavior and positive values supported each other.
5. Family rules help the child to tell rather easily "no" in pressure situation from peers. In each family the system of values the. There are no uniform standards of education preventing the use of tobacco and alcohol. Most likely, your child will observe how family values affect your behavior and to adopt your installations and beliefs. Especially heavy burden lays down on families in which one of parents has alcoholism. Acts of the father sick with alcoholism and reaction to his disease of healthy mother and vice versa form behavior models dangerous to children in the future.
Several rules to which it is necessary to adhere for simplification of position of the child in such family: - do not try to hide a problem from children. Children will be able to cope with a situation better if they know well that one of parents is sick. Make sure of what your children understand, alcoholism is a disease as cancer or diabetes. In this case they can begin to hate a disease, but continue to love the sick father or mother; - learn more information on alcoholism and transfer her to children. Understanding, at least partially, saves from fear of a disease; - children often feel that they are an etiology in general or the next hard drinking in particular. Help them to understand that it not so - try to bring some stability and an order, rituals and traditions in life of your family. Constancy and predictability of the environment contributes to the healthy development of children.
The task of parents is in teaching the child to be guided in any situation and to make the correct decisions. For this purpose we have to make everything that he possessed accurate information
You remember if the relation to drugs at the child is not created by you, then it someone will surely make another (the Internet, peers, the street). Also there is no guarantee that this relation will not be pernicious.
IV. ADVICE TO PARENTS: SIGNS OF THE USE OF NARCOTIC SUBSTANCES. What should I do?
(for experts, parents)
Often parents ask a question: how to learn whether the child uses drug? It is not so simple to answer it, apparently, especially if the child made it for the first time or uses the stupefying substances periodically. There are signs on which it is possible to suspect wrong:
The teenager late goes to bed, late gets up in the morning;
Spends more time outdoors;
Shows excessive garrulity, hyperactivity;
Shows slackness, block, apathy;
Speaks incoherently, talks nonsense;
Clumsy, gusty movements;
Became more reserved;
It is often aggressive;
Lost interest in study, former classes and friends;
Increased cash expenditures or began to pull out money or valuable things from the house;
Shows frequent differences in mood. Discrepancy of mood of a sitaution: indifference in a dispute or aggression on trifles;
Began to speak in a whisper or on unclear to you a slang with the acquaintances by phone or often retire with them to solitudes;
Made new suspicious friends or old friends became a little strange;
Changes of the sizes of pupils are observed: their increase or narrowing irrespective of lighting;
Emergence in the house of bubbles, small bottles, paper tubes, zakopchenny
All these signs (symptoms) are rather disturbing. If you noticed some of them at the child, try to talk to him. Acquisition of a rapid test for drugs in pharmacy is possible. At positive result of test and also in those cases if the child honestly recognized the dependence, it is necessary to address the narcologist at once. The earlier you ask for the help, the it is more than chances to keep life of your child.
What to do if you found out that the child uses drugs?
To make scandal there is no sense. Arrangements, shouts and blackmail will not help. Talk to the child when he is in a sober state. Tell it about the feelings and designate the position: "I love and I accept you, but I will never accept your use of drugs!".
It is not necessary to self-medicate! Ask for the help professionals. The earlier you will make it, the it is more than chances to help your child.
V. INSTRUCTION TO THE TEACHER
General signs of the beginning of the use of psychoactive and narcotic substances by teenagers.
(for experts, parents)
Decrease in interest in study, to usual hobbies.
There is an estrangement, emotionally cold attitude towards people around, such lines as reserve and falsity can amplify.
Episodes of aggression, irritability which are replaced by the periods of unnatural complacency are quite often possible.
The company with which the teenager communicates often consists of persons of more advanced age.
Incidental existence large or unclear origin of large sums of the money which is not corresponding to prosperity of family. There is an aspiration to borrow money or to take away them from weaker.
Tendency to communicate mainly with teenagers who obviously use drugs and/or other psychoactive substances.
The keen interest in children from wealthy families, importunate aspiration with them to make friends.
Existence of attributes of a narcotization: syringes, needles, small bubbles, blisters from tablets, small kulechok from cellophane or a foil, tubes of glue, plastic packages of sharply smelling substances, existence of a specific chemical smell from clothes and from a mouth.
Change of appetite – from total absence before sharp strengthening, gluttony, periodically nausea, vomiting.
Existence of traces from injections in the field of elbow bends, forearms, hands, irritation on skin, mucous membranes.
Causeless narrowing or expansion of pupils.
Decisive sign of the use by the teenager psychoactive and drugs is identification of a condition of the narcotic befuddling established by the doctor, in particular, the addiction psychiatrist.
The tactfulness and care in work with the minor having narcological problems are the obligatory rule as unreasonable suspicions of the use of narcotic substances can be the psychoinjuring factor, lead, in turn, to their real use.
If there were suspicions on the fact that the teenager uses narcotic substances (psychotropic, stupefying), then the following actions are most justified:
1. It is correct to report about the suspicions to parents or the teenager's trustees.
2. At suspicion on the group use of narcotic substances it is necessary to lead discussions with parents of all members of the group. In some cases it is expedient to carry out it in the form of meetings with the invitation of the doctor of the addiction psychiatrist, employee of law enforcement agencies.
3. To organize individual meetings of teenagers and their parents with the doctor the addiction psychiatrist of a narcological office.
4. To provide to teenagers and their parents information on a possibility of inspection, rendering psychological and social assistance, to specify the addresses and phones.
If there were suspicions on the fact that the student is in state of intoxication in connection with the use of drugs (the psychotropic, stupefying substances):
1. To urgently call the health worker of the educational organization. The medic has to estimate the general condition of the minor and record data of survey in the medical record.
2. If the general condition of the student is estimated as a condition of sharp drug intoxication – to call ambulance crew.
3. To inform administration of the educational organization on the incident.
4. To inform the parents of the teenager or persons replacing them on the incident.
5. Conducting immediate trial about the reasons and circumstances of the use of toxic substances is inexpedient.
6. In case of confirmation of the fact of consumption, together with officials of the educational organization immediately to notify on emergency law enforcement agencies, within 12 hours – the municipal commission on affairs of minors and protection of their rights (according to Order of interdepartmental interaction at emergence of emergencies with minors in the territory of the Rostov region (No. 1/2014 is approved by the decision the regional interdepartmental commission on affairs of minors and protection of their rights of 03.03.2014).
Algorithm of actions at identification of the minor who is in a condition of sharp poisoning with narcotic substances (psychotropic, stupefying):
Symptoms of sharp poisoning are: consciousness loss, sharp pallor, superficial and rare breath, badly probed pulse, lack of reaction to irritants, vomiting.
At sharp poisoning it is important to give first aid in time and to cause emergency medical service.
Stages of first-aid treatment at poisoning with drugs (the psychotropic, stupefying substances):
1. To cause emergency medical service.
2. To lay injured with the raised top half of a trunk and the head turned sideways.
3. To clean airways from slime and emetic masses.
4. To carefully examine conditions of integuments.
5. To watch the nature of breath before arrival of the doctor.
6. With a frequency of respiratory movements less than 8-10 times of 1 minute – artificial respiration "from a mouth in a mouth".
VI. ADVICE TO TEENAGERS
How to refuse the offer to try drugs?
(for use in work with minors)
It is better to refuse drugs once, than to try to do it all the short life.
How it can be done? Refusal tactics:
1. It is polite to refuse: "Do you want to try? No, thank you».
2. To explain a cause of failure: "Why you do not want?" — "I cannot, I make tests".
3. To change the subject: "Give pokayfuy?" — "And you heard that? …"
4. To press in return: "If you were cool, then would try" — "And if you were cool, then it would cease to rebyachitsya".
5. Not to show interest. Offer you drug — do not pay attention, pass by.
6. To avoid a situation and the place where can put pressure upon you.
7. Force in number. If it is necessary to go to such places — go together with those who do not use drugs too.
Still refusal options? Please:
– No, I have something to do!
- No, thanks, I ride a bike, I do sports (or I do something else) and me not before!
– No, thanks, I do not want troubles with parents (teachers at school, etc.).
– No, thanks, is not pleasant to me began to smell (taste).
– No, thanks, I do not want.
– No, thanks, it not for me.
– No, thanks, I do not use it.
– No, thanks, me still to be engaged.
– No, thanks, I have many cases.
– No, thanks, I now on a diet.
– No, I have thanks on them an allergy.
– No, thanks, is necessary to me on a training (in school, home, to friends).
– Thanks, no.
– Thanks, no! It not in my style. It not in my taste. It not for me.
– No, I do not want troubles.
– I and without it perfectly feel!
(and other options which you can think up).
There is more! When you speak "No": look in the face, smile and do not feel guilty is a false sense of guilt! Refusing drugs, you make the choice for the life, the present and the future, the success and favourite business, the freedom, the independence, responsibility and to true happiness!